Written in '40s '50 or '60s. Man stranded on an island after a natural disaster discovers rest of world living by his doctrine, which was appropriated by former associate.
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If you remember from that novel that amputations were an important value in the new society, then the answer is:
"Limbo" (1952) by Bernard Wolfe.
It has the following plot:
Martine returns from self-imposed exile after the end of a World War to find that his cynical and satirical musings about society in his diary have been used as a blueprint for the rebuilt society. Disarmament has been taken literally with men volunteering to have one or more limbs amputated. This movement has split into two factions: one which remains helpless - paraded in baby carridges by their wives or mothers; another that replaces me missing limbs with more powerful artificial limbs. Martime finds himself the hero and founder of a society he finds despicable, and one which is restarting the Cold war that led up to the last one, with each side trying to use him for its own ends.