Written in '40s '50 or '60s. Man stranded on an island after a natural disaster discovers rest of world living by his doctrine, which was appropriated by former associate.
If you remember from that novel that amputations were an important value in the new society, then the answer is:
"Limbo" (1952) by Bernard Wolfe.
It has the following plot:
Martine returns from self-imposed exile after the end of a World War to find that his cynical and satirical musings about society in his diary have been used as a blueprint for the rebuilt society. Disarmament has been taken literally with men volunteering to have one or more limbs amputated. This movement has split into two factions: one which remains helpless - paraded in baby carridges by their wives or mothers; another that replaces me missing limbs with more powerful artificial limbs. Martime finds himself the hero and founder of a society he finds despicable, and one which is restarting the Cold war that led up to the last one, with each side trying to use him for its own ends.