I've read the book and I'm aware that the movie is completely different from the novel version.
After watching the movie I have a question: Did Loomis kill Caleb, or did Caleb simply leave?
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This was addressed by the film's lead actor and Director in an interview with Time Magazine. In short, the ending was intentionally left ambiguous, but it's reasonably clear (at least to the film's principals) that Loomis did indeed kill Caleb.
Did John drop Caleb?
Zobel: I think you know.
I think he does…
Zobel: Yeah. I feel like it’s heavily hinted at.
Definitely, but I did leave wondering if maybe he did decide, It’s too crazy, I’m just gonna hit the road.
Ejiofor: That’s not a terrible thing to think. I think it’s slated one way, heavier in one direction than the other.
Zobel: Sure. Because you don’t get that moment, you’re allowed to have hope.
Do you think Ann knows?
Ejiofor: She’s gotta be deeply suspicious either way. The real thing is what they can rebuild—and if they can. Or is there a point where she does drive him off the land. Is that in their future? Or is there a future in which they actually figure it out?
Zobel: It certainly isn’t superfluous why Caleb isn’t there anymore, but certainly the fact that he’s gone and Loomis is by himself is enough of the problem for her. I think it’s a different story if you fast-forward two days after the movie ended to, like, six months after the movie ended—might totally be different stories.
One could look at it this way. John, did save Caleb from going over, not once, but twice. After this, Caleb, may have looked at the picture in a different light, like he owed John,big time for saving his life!and Caleb knew how much John, loved Ann, and just decided he owed John, that much, again for saving his life twice! So he stepped out of the picture. A good thought anyway, aye? An this would be a good thought, but? and a big but, like it was pointed out, Caleb, left all his stuff behind! John told Ann, that Caleb said, You can have what ever You want of his, all he took was the radiation suite? Really? this right here tells You John was lying! I mean i don't know how far this place was that Caleb, was headed toward, but, he just left without his extra clothing, food, water, and his tent? I don't think so. So, yeah sadly, You know John, let him fall! I hated how this ended. I was hoping Caleb, had survived the fall, and came back to get vengeance on John! that would have made for a better ending. As for Ann, knowing what John did? She, would have to have been blind not to. Will, she eventually run him off her land? If You heard her prayer to God! to please save John's life, spare him, she went on how lonely she was for the last seven years, so will she drive him off? I doubt it, because for all she knows is, John maybe the last person left on earth, at least man, and I think in her mined she would be thinking, I would go mad, if I didn't have another human around to be with. That is my view on the subject. Regards!