The answer to this one is a guarded "no". We know from Legends sources that the Emperor did indeed have a Throne Room on the first Death Star, but all indications are that he only used it during periodic visits (such as weapons tests) and that he had no plans to make it his permanent base, trusting in his underlings like Tarkin and Vader to operate the station in his name.
In addition, the Death Star included a throne room for the Emperor in
its finished design, and the maintenance and management of this
cham¬ber fell to the command sector. The practice of setting aside a
specific room from which the Emperor could rule began when throne
rooms were built within Star Destroyers of Imperial- class or better.
While the Emperor rarely, if ever, makes use of such facilities, his
decree demanded that they be available for those rare occasions.
While many believe that the Imperial throne room constructed aboard the Death Star was merely a figurative gesture to appease the Emperor. it was in fact a fully functional command center. The Emperor could control, monitor, and communicate with all areas of the battle station from his throne, effectively wielding the ultimate weapon as his own will dictates. The throne responded only to the Emperor's commands, however, using technologies tuned to his particular physical and mental patterns. The throne could not have been wielded by anyone but the Emperor.
The throne room was built high within an exterior tower, providing a spectacular view of space beyond. This tower was heavily shielded,
more so than any other portion of the battle station, and the hull
around it had been doubly reinforced to protect against incoming
artillery. It was virtually impenetrable from the outside.
Royal living quarters were below the throne room, as well as quarters for the Emperor's personal body guards and his advisors. Within the
armored sphere, just below the tower, was an emergency throne room in
case the tower ever suffered structural damage.
Star Wars: Death Star Technical Companion