It seems that almost all the capital vessels were destroyed in the fight above Scarif except Profundity (one or two jumped to hyperspace in the movie shot). From Chapter 22 of Freed's official novelization:
The Profundity trembled under the onslaught of TIE fighters. Its shields burst, re-formed, and burst again as emerald volleys struck. Three decks had already been forced to evacuate due to radiation leakage. But the Profundity endured where other vessels had been torn apart; in geostationary orbit above the Scarif Citadel, it was the center of a storm of molten metal and rent ships.
And Profundity was disabled by Vader's Devastator
“The rebel flagship is disabled, my lord,” the Devastator’s captain reported crisply at Vader’s side. Darth Vader did not turn to him as he spoke. “But it has received transmissions from the surface.”
 - The film shows that 1 or two smaller ships - including a Corellian Corvette that technically is a capital ship - did escape. But....
However, it doesn't matter if any capital ships escaped Scarif - they wouldn't have been used in the battle of Yavin anyway.
From A New Hope script, the rebels clearly understood that capital ships were fully useless against Death Star:
The battle station is heavily shielded
and carries a firepower greater than
half the star fleet. It's defenses
are designed around a direct large-
scale assault. A small one-man fighter
should be able to penetrate the outer
There's no clear indication of what happened to Blue Squadron, but chances are it was largely destroyed, first trying to open the gate, then, during fighting, then in Death Star turbolaser, since it was under the shield, fighting.
“This is Admiral Raddus. Red and Gold Squadrons, engage those two Star Destroyers. Blue Squadron, get to the surface before they close that gate!”
“What about Profundity, Admiral?” the tactical officer called.
“We cover Blue Squadron,” Raddus said, and jutted a finger at the viewport. “We target the shield gate.”
General Merrick, too, might have disagreed, but he had led Blue Squadron through the gate to Scarif, and now starfighter command fell to Raddus as well.