I recognize that this is likely not answered in TNG, but if any of the books/comics address it, that's fine too.
We know that Data can interface with the ship's computer (numerous episodes with Data's skull wired up), and we even know that his personality matrix - for lack of a better term - can be copied, as was done to B-4.
In the former case, Data was only issuing and receiving data, while in the latter case he was copied into a (more primitive) positronic brain.
As his personality matrix is software, could it be transferred into, say, a mainframe (which we know are what run the Enterprise, hilariously)? If so, how would that affect his personality? Fundamentally, how much of who Data is, is dependent upon his hardware? He would seem to be able to acquire more facts, but would he still be able to grow and develop as a person?