Yes, in "Journey to the Centre of the TARDIS".
After the Doctor and Clara have finally made their way all the way to the heart of the TARDIS, the Doctor pushes through a glowing crack in the wall to meet his earlier self from right back at the start of the episode. From the transcript (emphasis mine):
DOCTOR: Oh, yes. Big friendly button.
CLARA: You're lying.
CLARA: To stop me freaking out?
DOCTOR: Is it working?
CLARA: Not so much.
(The future Doctor pushes through the crack.)
FUTURE DOCTOR: Doctor, Doctor. I'm from your future. We haven't got long to reset time.
(He vanishes. The grenade rolls across the floor to Clara. She picks it up.)
As a bonus, there are also at least two more occasions in the show where Matt Smith has interacted with himself on-screen, although in-universe only one of these selves is the Doctor, the other being:
in one case ("The Rebel Flesh"/"The Almost People"), a Ganger in the form of the Eleventh Doctor:
in the other ("Nightmare in Silver"), a Cyber Planner taking over the Doctor's body and appearing inside his head as a Borgified version of him: