As there is to my knowledge no direct possible answer here (canon and non canon), we need to delve into speculation.
Obi wan was quite near when he felt the death of Alderaan. So it could be that you need to be nearby to feel it. But Yoda on the other hand proved in Revenge of the Sith that death can be felt half a galaxy away. He felt the death of the Jedi masters which in turn saved his life as he was wary because of that.
So as Yoda could feel the death of single individuals strong in the force it is very possible that he felt the death of billions of people at the same time (as even Obi Wan could feel that despite being less attuned to the force than Yoda as is proven by Revenge of the Sith again as only Yoda felt the death of the Jedi masters).
With that said though Yoda's reaction can only be pure speculation. Very probably feelings of regret and sorrow being there but he knew because of his encounter with Palpatine that he could do nothing. Nothing but wait for the new hope to surface and fulfill the will of the force that is.