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Olivander has three main core types, unicorn hair, phoenix feather and dragon heart string. dragon heartstring wands are described as the most powerful of the three and learn faster than the others, the trade off is that the wand is the most prone to accidents and is temperamental.

Now what happens when wands malfunction? Would it be like when Ron's wand snapped and spells stopped working properly and will shoot magic into your face instead?

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    Asking multiple questions is a surefire way of getting your question closed as "too broad". Please edit out your final question and ask it separately. – BCdotWEB Jan 21 '17 at 12:54
  • It probably looks something like this... – The Dark Lord Jan 21 '17 at 13:04
  • @TheDarkLord - Or like this – Valorum Jan 21 '17 at 13:54
  • @Valorum Quite. – The Dark Lord Jan 21 '17 at 14:10
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    What do you mean by malfunction? Malfunction due to what? – Gallifreyan Jan 21 '17 at 14:57
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Wands rarely malfunction.

In fact, the only times we have seen in the books where something goes wrong, it was the fault of the wizard or the lack of synergy between wand and the user. Or the wand was physically broken. This seems to be the closest we get to malfunctioning of wands, and here's what happens to them:

  • Sir Cadogan's wand broke while he was fighting. Pottermore says this about the incident:

The creature lowered its fearsome head to swallow Sir Cadogan and the pony whole, but the splintered and misfiring wand pierced its tongue, igniting the gassy fumes rising from its stomach and causing the wyvern to explode.

This does prove that wands are still good for something, but also that when they break they misfire.

  • Hagrid's wand was broken, though Dumbledore may have mended it. He seemed to be able to use it fine, though Hagrid wasn't the best at magic, since he was expelled in his third year.
  • Several wands, upon breaking, were rendered as useless by the user, including Lucius Malfoy's, Neville's first, and Umbridge's. Also, Harry's wand, which was cleanly snapped. Ollivander says of Harry's:

“Yes,” said Harry. “Can you — ?”

“No,” whispered Ollivander. “I am sorry, very sorry, but a wand that has suffered this degree of damage cannot be repaired by any means that I know of.”

  • Ron's wand, of course, breaks. He,interestingly, does not think it useless--probably because he doesn't want to ask his mother for a new one. And when he uses it, it works--it doesn't do what Ron wants, but it does something magical.

I think, then, that we can infer that what happens depends on how big the break is. Cadogan's was only splintered, and it misfired; Harry's broke in half, and did nothing.

  • Good point re it being the fault of the wizards. When Lockhart vanished Harry's arm bones it was a "malfunction" but it wasn't the fault of the wand. – The Dark Lord Jan 23 '17 at 17:33
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Ron's wand was broken but still holding together and produced numerous embarrassing problems, though it wasn't considered an emergency because staff let him use it with only a few recommendations to replace it. It did backfire literally when Lockhart used it. Perhaps this was because it was pointed at its owner or just because it was broken.

Harry's was snapped in two and just did not work - it produced a few sparks after Hermione tried to repair it but was otherwise entirely useless.

When Harry used the Snatcher's wand and Hermione used Bellatrix's it took a lot of getting used to but this was primarily because they weren't their wands. But perhaps the symptoms (spells weaker and harder to control) are other potential issues with malfunctioning wands.

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