The protagonist on this one has landed on an alien world. I can't remember if it is to make repairs, or if he is exploring, etc. It sticks in my mind he may have been a survivor from a doomed space liner that was carrying passengers (though that may be another story - I can't remember for certain here.) What I do remember is that the ship he is in is seized and carried off by very large flying insects, that are described as being very bee-like in nature.
The protagonist is powerless to stop them, but is able to follow them back to their hive. His hope is to recover his ship and get off the planet (or at least signal for help). When he gets there, he soon discovers there are artifacts and items from many cultures and races scattered about the hive. Many of these items are rendered and useless, which the protagonist sees as the work of unintelligent beings. He also discovers his ship has been badly damaged by the "Bees", who have rent parts of it with their pincers.
The protagonist then embarks on the task of trying to find enough usable technology and material in the giant hive to somehow repair his own vessel. As this is a task that will take a great deal of time, supplies to stay alive become crucial. He finds a water source, and for sustenance he begins to eat a sort of honey that the bees store in large cells. He encounters a number of alien creatures in this process. Presumably they are there for the same reason(s) that he is - captured, or searching for a way out. One of the aliens becomes violent with him, and the protagonist is forced to shoot it.
As the story continues, the protagonist begins experiencing strange effects from the honey he has eaten. He begins to have dreams about experiences that could not possibly have been his own. Slowly, the man realizes the alien bees are intelligent, after a pattern. Not in the sense of human intelligence, or necessarily even a conscious hive mind, but intelligent all the same. And these creatures task themselves with collecting experiences, information, and understanding, all of which is stored somehow in the honey.
The story closes with the man acknowledging he will never see home again. He has experienced thousands of memories and images by this point, not knowing whether they are real or dreams. He talks about being a super-hero named "Spider Guy" one day, and something else the next. He will spend the rest of his days in the hive, surviving on the honey and living an nearly infinite number of experiences in the process.
2000's or later. I'm positive that it wasn't any earlier than that. I read it in a sci-fi mag like Analog or Sci-Fi/Fantasy, but I can't remember which one.