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Will those resurrected by the Necromancer be undead demonic creatures, or can necromancers can also bring people back who might live a normal life after the resurrection as before they died? Who is the Necromancer in Tolkien's universe?

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    Could you narrow down your question to one work of fantasy, or a specific univers? Otherwise it's likely this question will be closed for being too broad. – Edlothiad Jan 29 '17 at 19:53
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    If this question actually pertains to Tolkien's Legendarium then the answer is no. No one besides Eru is capable of ressurection. Also I've fixed the scope to remove the Author tag (usually reserved for questions specifically about Tolkien, and added the one for The Hobbit, which is the work that The Necromancer is from. – Edlothiad Jan 29 '17 at 19:55
  • @Edlothiad: Beren's return from death, as described in The Silmarillion, was exceptional, but it didn't seem to require Eru's direct intervention. – b_jonas Jan 29 '17 at 21:35
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    Based on the tag, this question is about the Necromancer referenced in the Hobbit. Voting to leave open. – DBPriGuy Jan 30 '17 at 0:25
  • @b_jonas: depends what you mean by direct. It wasn't like the destruction of Numenor & making the world round -- "the Valar laid down their guardianship" -- but it required at least permission/authorization from Eru. The fate of Men isn't clearly enough defined to know whether Eru did something directly or just gave Mandos permission to do something, IMO. – cometaryorbit Jan 30 '17 at 3:41
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In a manner of speaking

Tolkien discusses "necromancy" in his imagined world in an essay titled "Laws and Customs Among the Eldar"; he's quite clear that "necromancy" isn't about raising the dead, per se, but about commanding and controlling lingering spirits of the departed (emphasis mine)1:

It is therefore a foolish and perilous thing, besides being a wrong deed forbidden justly by the appointed Rulers of Arda, if the Living seek to commune with the Unbodied, though the houseless may desire it, especially the most unworthy among them. For the Unbodied, wandering in the world, are those who at the least have refused the door of life and remain in regret and self-pity. Some are filled with bitterness, grievance, and envy. Some were enslaved by the Dark Lord and do his work still, though he himself is gone. They will not speak truth or wisdom. To call on them is folly. To attempt to master them and to make them servants of one own's will is wickedness. Such practices are of Morgoth; and the necromancers are of the host of Sauron his servant.

History of Middle-earth X Morgoth's Ring Part 3: "The Later Quenta Silmarillion" Chapter 2: "The Second Phase" Laws and Customs Among the Eldar

However, in theory, there's nothing stopping Sauron from "re-embodying" these spirit-servants; another part of this essay discusses the possibility that rogue spirits could inhabit bodies not their own, and take them over (either by evicting the original spirit, or by more subtle means):

Some say that the Houseless desire bodies, though they are not willing to seek them lawfully by submission to the judgement of Mandos. The wicked among them will take bodies, if they can, unlawfully. The peril of communing with them is, therefore, not only the peril of being deluded by fantasies or lies: there is peril also of destruction. For one of the hungry Houseless, if it is admitted to the friendship of the Living, may seek to eject the feä from its body; and in the contest for mastery the body may be gravely injured, even if it be not wrested from its rightful habitant. Or the Houseless may plead for shelter, and if it is admitted, then will seek to enslave its host and use both his will and his body for its own purposes.

History of Middle-earth X Morgoth's Ring Part 3: "The Later Quenta Silmarillion" Chapter 2: "The Second Phase" Laws and Customs Among the Eldar

We can easily imagine Sauron bringing a slave, either a devoted follower or a prisoner tortured beyond the point of reason, to one of his spirit-servants for the purposes of possession. If this were done, the resulting creature wouldn't quite be the same as the original, since identity in Tolkien's imagined world arises from the combination of spirit and body, but it also wouldn't be an especially "demonic" creature; it would still be an elf, and one who would presumably behave quite similarly to how it would have before death, except that it would be under the dominion of Sauron's will.

This is, however, purely hypothetical; there's no evidence that Sauron ever attempted this more direct kind of necromancy.


1 For more context on this, you may want to read the answers (particularly my answer, which delves into this in great detail) to What happened to elves when they died or lost the will to live?

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    The intricacies of Tolkien's world-building never cease to amaze me. – SynchronizeYourDogma Jan 30 '17 at 15:21
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No.

The Necromancer in the Hobbit is Sauron.

He is presumably called that because he commands the Ringwraiths, who are in a sense "undead" humans. But even the Ringwraiths aren't dead humans called back to life or unlife - they are humans who never quite died, but were transformed into a half-alive state by the effect of their Ring. Gandalf describes it as:

And if he often uses the Ring to make himself invisible, he fades: he becomes in the end invisible permanently, and walks in the twilight under the eye of the dark power that rules the Rings.

There may be 'death' in the sense that biological processes as we know them stop, but there's no calling back of a soul from the afterlife.

Mortals:

The only return of a human from death in Arda is the case of Beren:

None have ever come back from the mansions of the dead, save only Beren son of Barahir, whose hand had touched a Silmaril; but he never spoke afterward to mortal Men.

(The Silmarillion, "Of Men")

Elves

'Re-embodiment' of Elves was possible within Arda in the "normal" course of events, but this seems to have been authority granted only to Mandos.

However, Sauron may have been able to control the disembodied spirits of dead Elves:

For the Unbodied, wandering in the world, are those who at the least have refused the door of life [...] Some were enslaved by the Dark Lord and do his work still, though he himself is gone. [...] To attempt to master them and make them servants of one's own will is wickedness. Such practices are of Morgoth; and the necromancers are of the host of Sauron his servant.

(History of Middle Earth volume X: Morgoth's Ring, The Later Quenta Silmarillion (II), Laws and Customs among the Eldar)

Spirits (eälar)

Spirit beings such as the Valar and Maiar are capable of 'embodying' and 're-embodying' themselves at will, at least until they become too corrupted and diminished, as Morgoth and Sauron eventually did.

"they need it [the body] not, save only as we use raiment, and yet we may be naked and suffer no loss of our being."

(The Silmarillion, Ainulindalë)

OK, technically that quote refers specifically to the Valar, but the Maiar are the same fundamental type of being, just less powerful.

However, Sauron's ability to rebuild his own body (which he did at least twice, after the Fall of Numenor and after the Last Alliance) isn't the same thing as being able to re-embody others.

Orcs

Well, Tolkien never really decided on the nature of Orcs, so their fate after death is unclear. LOTR and the Silmarillion as published make them corrupted Elves; if this is true, they presumably end up in Mandos, outside Sauron's reach:

It remains therefore terribly possible that there was an Elvish strain in the Orcs. [...] dying they would go to Mandos and be held in prison till the End. (History of Middle Earth volume X: Morgoth's Ring, Myths Transformed, VIII 'Orcs')

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One caveat: the Morgoth's Ring material comes from a period of much re-evaluation of ideas by Tolkien and can't necessarily be taken as 'canonical'.

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