Lots of things blow up near planets in Star Wars (Coruscant in Episode III being an obvious example). Why doesn't this end up more like the movie Gravity?
In Star Wars, Millennium Falcon emerged from hyperspace in the middle of the shattered remains of an entire planet, Alderaan, which the Death Star had just obliterated. Other than a few bumps similar to turbulence on an airliner, the Falcon's passengers were unmussed. So while orbits may well be full of debris, the standard shield technology is good enough that no one has to worry about it.