The song is "Sabotage" by the Beastie Boys
According to Memory Alpha, it was produced on Earth by Humans in the late 20th century.
It is exactly the same song that was used in the chase scene in Star Trek (2009).
It was creators' choice to include this song in the Star Trek Beyond. Other songs have also been considered, for example from Creedence Clearwater Revival, proposed by the director, Justin Lin. (emphasis mine):
I actually was trying to get Creedence Clearwater Revival in there. But it didn't feel right. The third track [we tried] was Sabotage. Once it got in there, it never changed. It was in the DNA of the franchise – it also calls back to Kirk's childhood.
The song has also been used in the Star Trek Beyond trailer and for that Simon Pegg felt that:
they blew that. That's our little funny secret weapon. I was kind of ticked off about it. It's the Ewoks against the Empire! It's defeating something technological with something very simple – with just a radio frequency.