When a Jedi or a Sith die, do the midi-chlorians somehow emigrate to another person or diffuse out of body and into space?
Could somebody breathe them accidentally and gain a bond with the Force?
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Midichlorians are not a separate life-form living freely inside a force-user's body; they're part of a life-form's cells, as much a part of you as your cells' golgi apparatus, cell nuclei, or mitochondria.
The inspiration for the midichlorians was in fact the mitochondria. These are tiny structures inside your cells that help process sugars into energy your cells can use for their metabolic processes. Mitochondria have their own DNA, and relatively recently (late 1980s) it has become widely believed that mitochondria originated as free-living bacteria that were consumed by the early cells that eventually evolved into Eurkaryotes (us), and that mitochondria are therefore symbiotes.
Midichlorians, then, are the organelles in our cells that interact with the Force. They don't create the Force, and they are not synonymous with the Force, but they are the way we perceive and interact with the Force. It's no different from how our eyes use rod and cone cells to interact with electromagnetic radiation, or our hands use skin cells to detect physical interaction. Just because I know that rods and cones are detecting the radiation, that doesn't make a sunset less beautiful.
So, what happens to a person's midichlorians when they die? Their cells die, and the midichlorians in those cells die as well. Same as any other biological structure.
In the original trilogy, it is said that the force is a energy field that is CREATED by all living things.
So for me the midichlorians are not the force itself but the cells (or something else) that can create the force (and therefore allows someone who has a lot of midichlorians to interract with the energy field)
So, in that way, when a person die, all his midichlorians also die and he's not able to create the force or interract wih it.
But IIRC no reference of midichlorians is done in the original trilogy and no reference to how the force works exactly is done in the prelogy... So I can't find something that could bind these both aspects of the force...
PS : I don't think that the ghost are midichlorians living without a body (like RichS said in he's comment), they are souls that have been able to let a mark so strong in the force that their spirit survive in it...