After a quick Google, most speculators (and one unsourced trivia bit from a newspiece) compare Jedha City directly to Masada, a hilltop fortress which was under siege by the Roman Empire in 74 B.C. The Roman legion surrounded the hill and built an earthen ramp over the course of a year. The holdouts in the fortress committed mass suicide before the ramp was complete.
Visually, the hilltop heavily resembles Jedha City, in both concept art and shots in the film itself. Masada is a very famous exmaple of Roman legion siege tactics and it provides a lot of good visual & story parallels to the dynamic between the rebels and the Empire in Rogue One.