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Arwen Undómiel , also known as "Evenstar" (or Evening Star), became mortal by choice and her "fate became tied to the outcome of the ring" (words of Elrond in the movie, don't remember how that was conveyed in the book).

Once the ring is destroyed and the Fellowship is back at Minas Tirith, she is referred to as the Morningstar. How come?

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    You really need to focus on one question at a time - and I am pretty sure your first two questions are answered somewhere else on the site. As far as your third question, where do you see her referred to as the Morningstar? – Matt Gutting Feb 20 '17 at 16:17
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    @beatsforthemind "But first I will plead this excuse,’ said Éomer. ‘Had I seen her in other company, I would have said all that you could wish. But now I will put Queen Arwen Evenstar first, and I am ready to do battle on my own part with any who deny me. Shall I call for my sword?’ Then Gimli bowed low. ‘Nay, you are excused for my part, lord,’ he said. ‘You have chosen the Evening; but my love is given to the Morning. And my heart forebodes that soon it will pass away for ever.’ Its a discussion about Arwen as the Evening and Galadriel as the Morning. – SynchronizeYourDogma Feb 20 '17 at 16:23
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    Well all Elves in Middle Earth are tied to the fate of the One due to the waning powers of the Three after the Ones destruction, but nowhere does it describe Arwen as being the evening and the morning. It is explicitly stated in the comment above that Galadriel is the morning and Arwen is the evening. I suppose I could just be misunderstanding the question - that or I am confused. – SynchronizeYourDogma Feb 20 '17 at 16:27
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    But not as Morningstar anywhere that I can find in the books. – Matt Gutting Feb 20 '17 at 16:44
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    So yeah, I just reread this part (Return of the King: Chapter 6: Many Partings). @Withywindle has the right quote. As far as I can tell Eomer is referring to Galadriel as the Morningstar. So I think Matt Gutting is right, I don't think Arwen is really referred to as the Morningstar. – beatsforthemind Feb 20 '17 at 17:07
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It didn't

Gimli is only saying poetically that he prefers Galadriel to Arwen. Arwen is never referred to as "the Morningstar". You may be confused by the dialogue between Gimli and Éomer:

‘But first I will plead this excuse,’ said Éomer. ‘Had I seen [Galadriel] in other company, I would have said all that you could wish. But now I will put Queen Arwen Evenstar first, and I am ready to do battle on my own part with any who deny me. Shall I call for my sword?’

Then Gimli bowed low. ‘Nay, you are excused for my part, lord,’ he said. ‘You have chosen the Evening; but my love is given to the Morning. And my heart forebodes that soon it will pass away for ever.’

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, Many Partings, p. 305

Arwen's epessë ("after-name") is Undómiel, meaning "twilight star". It was translated into English as "Even[ing]star". There is no real explanation as to why Arwen was named "Evenstar", but my understanding (which may be wrong) is that it has two purposes:

  • It recalls Lúthien's own epessë: Tinúviel, "Daughter of Twilight" or "Nightingale". Note that Lúthien is Arwen's great-great-great-grandmother and it was said that in Arwen, "the likeness of Lúthien had come on earth again."
  • It shows nostalgia for the ages past, before Elves and their works started fading.

As for Gimli's answer above, it is a play on Arwen's epessë and the relative age between Arwen and Galadriel. At the time of the War of the Ring, Arwen is roughly 2,700 years old, but Galadriel is much older. Her age is not clear because she was born in Valinor before the Years of the Sun, but she could very well be over 10,000 years old.

Being born at the beginning of the Third Age, Arwen would represent the Elves' "evening", at the end of a long and tiresome day, while Galadriel would represent the Elves' "morning", when "the light of Aman was not yet dimmed in their eyes, and they were strong and swift, and deadly in anger, and their swords were long and terrible." Galadriel's golden hair also invokes images of a golden sun in the morning, compared to Arwen's dark hair.

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    Your answers are always excellent. Well done :) – SynchronizeYourDogma Feb 20 '17 at 17:45
  • Thanks for the answer, I misinterpreted the passage in the book. – beatsforthemind Feb 20 '17 at 18:55
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    An excellent answer but I aways guessed Gimli is merely jesting "You choosed the brunet but I prefeer the blonde" – jean Feb 22 '17 at 11:01
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Arwen’s sobriquet does not change from Evenstar to Morning-star

Arwen Undómiel, known as the Evenstar (or Evening-Star), being half-elven, is given the choice between becoming Mortal (like her uncle, Elros) or remaining an Elf and passing into the west (like her father, Elrond). She eventually chooses that “Doom of Men” and becomes mortal to marry Aragorn.

Gimli, when speaking to Éomer, has a disagreement regarding the Lady of Lórien, which refers to Galadriel who is the grandmother of Arwen Undómiel. Éomer believes tales that Gimli finds disrespectful to one whom Gimli regards as the greatest beauty in Middle-earth: Galadriel, the Lady of Lorien. The dispute is eventually resolved in The Return of the King when Éomer and Gimli have this interaction when Arwen and Galadriel are both in Minas Tirith following the destruction of the One Ring:

But first I will plead this excuse,’ said Éomer. ‘Had I seen her in other company, I would have said all that you could wish. But now I will put Queen Arwen Evenstar first, and I am ready to do battle on my own part with any who deny me. Shall I call for my sword?’ Then Gimli bowed low. ‘Nay, you are excused for my part, lord,’ he said. ‘You have chosen the Evening; but my love is given to the Morning. And my heart forebodes that soon it will pass away for ever.’

Basically what’s going on is that Éomer agrees that Galadriel is of great beauty, but Arwen is “first” to him. I believe the “morning” portion is a play on words by Gimli (who is quite loquacious, especially around and regarding things of great beauty) due to Arwen being the Evening-Star and Galadriel having flowing blonde hair — not to mention the silver dawn-like descriptions of Lothlórien in winter.

I have searched the texts and appendices and have not found the word Morningstar, although I could have missed it. This brings up an interesting question: since Morningstar is a euphemism for Lucifer (at least it is now), would the devout Catholic Tolkien have used such a description?

  • I think Evenstar is particularly appropriate for Arwen as the Evening Star is, in fact, the Silmaril carried through the skies on the brow of her grandfather Eärendil. Another aspect of the evening/morning part of the discussion between Gimli and Éomer is that we know (but they may not) that the Evening Star and the Morning Star are the same thing (the Silmaril in Tolkien's world, Venus in ours). – Blackwood Feb 20 '17 at 17:40
  • @Blackwood I haven't been able to find the phrases "Morningstar" , "morning star" , or "morning-star" in any of the LotR texts. Is it mentioned in the Silmarillion or Letters? I don't have them at hand at the moment. Good points though! – SynchronizeYourDogma Feb 20 '17 at 17:44
  • I don't believe there is any explicit reference to the Morning Star. My association of the Silmaril with both Evening and Morning Stars is from the description in Silmarillion of Eärendil's voyages through the skies: "Far he journeyed in that ship, even into the starless voids; but most often was he seen at morning or at evening, glimmering in sunrise or sunset, as he came back to Valinor from voyages beyond the confines of the world." – Blackwood Feb 20 '17 at 17:49
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    @Withywindle "Morning-star" is another name of Venus and is related to Eärendil: "His name is in actual origin Anglo-Saxon: earendel "ray of light' applied sometimes to the morning-star, a name of ramified mythological connexions (now largely obscure)." – isanae Feb 20 '17 at 17:55
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    Morningstar is not an un-Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is specifically mentioned in the Litany of Loretto. – Peter Turner Feb 21 '17 at 16:16

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