It is possible he handed his old lightsaber back when he left
The Jedi Order is shown to accept the lightsabers of those members that leave.
Ahsoka Tano left the Jedi Order at the end of the season 5 of the Clone Wars and gave up her lightsabers - Anakin returned these to her before The Battle of Mandalore.
Dooku had a bust in the hall commemorating those lost 20 Jedi that have left, so he left on good terms meaning he would have followed any rules like this.
When he became a Sith and needed a lightsaber it was easier to build a new one than to ask for / take his old one back, this would obviously have had a red crystal as per Sith lightsabers.
There is also evidence of this happening in Legends with the New Jedi Order
In the New Jedi Order when a Jedi leaves they surrender their lightsaber:
Tenel Ka did this when she left the order to focus on being queen of her homeworld.
"She held out her lightsaber to Luke. “It is with great regret that I must surrender this. I simply cannot fulfill the duties of a Knight in the Jedi order.
Although Luke gave it back to her
I understand.” Luke accepted Tenel Ka’s lightsaber, then pushed it back into her hand. “But please keep your lightsaber. You earned the right to carry it, and that can never be taken away.”