Is there list of all the languages mentioned in the Game of Thrones TV series? Along with the book series? And related canon books?
There are following languages:
Common Tongue: This language developed/took hold1 after the Andal invasion of Westeros. Andal bands coming from Andalos in Essos repeatedly attacked Westerosi realms of the first men, carving out their own Kingdoms. Eventually the only place where the First Men retained their religion, customs and sovreignity was the Kingdom of the North. In the aftermath, The Common tongue developed which was adopted by North as well at a certain point. The accents can differ from North to Dorne, to the point that it is possible to discern the homeland of a person from his accent.
Old Tongue: This was the original language of Westeros spoken by Giants and the First Men. Eventually with the Andal invasion, the old tongue started dying out in Westeros. Today it is spoken only beyond the wall by some Wildling clans such as Thenns or Giants.
High Valyrian: This was the language of the Dragonlords of Valyrian Freehold. With the rapid expansion of Freehold and establishment of Colonies, different dialects such as Bravosi, Lysene, Lorathi, Myrish, Norvoshi, Pentoshi, Qohorik, Volantenese and Tyroshi developed overtime in the Colonies. By extension, one can say that Vulgar Ghiscari and its dialects can be considered to be dialects of High Valyrian. Furthermore, as Elyria, Tolos and Mantarys were founded by Valyrians as well, they can also be considered part of Valyrian family. The High Valyrian can be considered the Planetosi equivalent of Latin or Persian in our world. With the Doom of Valyria however, the language started going out of common usage and is today alive only in literary circles.
Old Ghiscari: This was the language of ancient Ghiscari Empire which vied with the nascent Valyrian Empire for supremacy in the earliest days of mankind. Ghiscari Empire was overwhelmed by the Valyrians and as the state ceased to exist, the language started going out of use as well due to prevalence of Valyrian language.
Vulgar Ghiscari: This bastard tongue originated in occupied lands of former Ghiscari Empire which can be compared to rise of modern day French from Vulgar Latin which was a blend of Latin with old Celtic Gaulic language. It is a blend of Valyrian and old Ghiscari. It has given birth to a number of its own dialects such as Astapori, Yunkish and Meereenese.
Dothraki: Dothraki is, well the language of the Nomadic Dothraki people from Essos. This is one of the few languages of Essos which have remained unaffected by rise of Valyrian primarily because of the lack of contact between the Valyrians and the Dothraki.
Asshaiese: This is probably the most mysterious language in Planetos, which shouldn't be surprising seeing that People and city of Asshai are a mystery as well. Not much is known about it.
Lhazareen: This is the language of Lhazareen people who dwell in Lhazar. Not much is known about it.
Trade Talk: This is just a name given to the jumble of words used by sailors and traders across the planet which is composed of words, phrases and grammar from a multitude of languages.
Rhoynar Although there is no mention of the Rhoynar tongue, it is only to be expected that given their different culture, ethnicity and history, the original Rhoynar must have developed their own language.
Yi-Tish and Lengiish: Although not specifically mentioned to have a seperate language, it is only to be expected that due to the same reasons as for the case of Rhoynar, these two ethnic groups of Yi Ti must have developed their own languages.
Qaarthi: Distinct language not defined. Presumably have their own tongue.
Brindleman: These people are described to have learnt the trade talk but their original language is not described but there must have been one as they learnt to speak trade talk, they don't personally speak it.
Summer Tongue: This is the language of the Summer Islanders. Not much is known about it.
Naathi: Being a distinct and secluded group, they must have developed their own language as well.
This whole continent is shrouded in mystery and nothing is known about its inhabitants (If any) or their languages.
True Tongue: This is the language of the Children of the Forest. The language is noted for human inability to speak it. Ravens can however speak it.
Others-ese/Skroth: Others, being a different species, have their own language. They were observed communicating in the Prologue of AGOT.
Please refer to the following visual tree. You will have to open the image in new tab and zoom it to view it completely. Alternatively, Imgur link can be found here.
1. It is unclear what language did the Andals of the Old spoke. If they spoke a different language, then Common tongue would be a result of assimilation like modern English was formed after Norman invasion of England from Norman, French and Old English. Otherwise, It can be assumed that Andals brought their own tongue to the continent and made it prevail
NOTE: I have created a tree of Planetosi languages but right now I am unable to convert it from GED format to PNG format. Will post when I figure it out. Probably
in the morning when I can. It's done