TL/DR: Aside from DS9, there is practically zero canon information. Aside from individual novels, there really isn't documentation that went into more depth for any space station (Except for DS9) that went more than one or two pages. In the TNG Era, type XII phaser arrays were standard armament for Space Stations. That's about as much as there is for canon details for starbase armament.
DS9 has the luxury of having seven seasons to flesh it out.
In terms of TNG era starbases, technical manuals for the Sovereign class boasted that the ship sported Type XII Phasers, originally for Starbases. Also in the TNG Technical Manual which showcased the Galaxy Class, the Galaxy-Class sported Type X phaser arrays. This implies that Type XII were common on starbases for the TNG era, but there is no real documentation for space stations.
Throughout all of the the shows, there were common naming conventions, but the design teams didn't follow a standard model. In TOS there was starbase K-7, supposed to be near the Federation-Klingon Border, and is probably the most iconic station of the TOS. Then of course you have Starbase One and Spacedock in the TOS Movies. However they are purely scenery locations, and there was no documentation as to Starbase One's capabilities. In TNG you had several starbases and deep space stations mentions. In Voyager, you had the (edit) Jupiter Station mentioned in the late season, where the Doctor was sent to help treat his creator. However that is a civilian station.
Deep Space Nine was the only place that had real mentions. In the early seasons, Chief O'Brien had mentioned that the old Cardassian station had incompatable equipment from Federation technology, and it constantly caused issues. In "The Way of the Warrior", the Klingons tried to storm the station with a fleet and soon discovered the station is refitted with multiple banks of Type X and Type XI phaser banks, and "5000 torpedoes". There is even enough launchers for Sisko to order a salvo of just even launchers first, and then odd launchers.
Again, DS9 has the luxury of seven seasons to flesh out the station. No other station has that luxury. Considering the main theme of Star Trek is to showcase a single ship going where no one has gone before, we may likely never get something like this again.