When Balok threatens to destroy the Enterprise, Captain Kirk tries to bluff his way out by saying the Enterprise contains Corbomite, a protective substance that automatically destroys any attacker.
I am not going to spoil what happens next in The Corbomite Maneuver episode, but you can say Kirk and crew survive.
An alien ship could defeat the alleged Corbomite in several ways. It can just zap the Enterprise and then warp away before the Corbomite could wreak havoc. It could fire missile from a safe distance. It can use a smaller ship to destroy the Enterprise. (A smaller ship does separate from the main ship in the episode, and despite its small size, it is very capable of handling the Enterprise.) It could perhaps use transporters to beam anti-matter or some other explosive material inside the Enterprise hull where the Corbomite-enabled hull will not reflect the attack back against the Fesarius.
Furthermore, it won't work against aliens on a suicide mission.
If I was the commander of the Fesarius, I would have called Kirk a liar and say he deserves to die for being stupid enough to think anybody would fall for such a obvious bluff. For a bluff to work, it has to be credible.
Why would Kirk even try a bluff like that?
Furthermore, Kirk tries the same bluff again in the episode, The Deadly Years, and the Romulans fall for it. This time, Kirk says that Corbomite will destroy the Enterprise and any ship within a 200,000 kilometer diameter. Providing a limit on the alleged device weakens the bluff because it tells the Romulans they can withdraw back 200,000 Km and then fire on the Enterprise.
Maybe this is another example of bad script writing.