Anakin certainly blames Obi-Wan (and by extension the Jedi Council) for the death of his mother, largely for making him babysit Padmé instead of looking for the assassins. He seems to be of the opinion that with his talents, that they'd have cleared up the messy issue of who was trying to kill Padmé (and thus been back in time to follow up his disturbing dreams) days or even weeks ago.
“It’s all Obi-Wan’s fault!” He stormed across the room and slammed his
fist onto the workbench again, nearly dislodging the plate of food.
“He put me out of the way.”
“To guard me,” she said quietly.
“I should have been out with him, hunting the assassins! I’d have had
them a long time ago, and would’ve gotten here in time and my mother
would still be alive!”
“You can’t know-“
“He’s jealous of me,” Anakin rambled on, paying no attention to her at
all. He wasn’t talking to her, she realized, but was just playing it
all out verbally for himself. She could hardly believe what she was
hearing. “He put me out of the way because he knows that I’m already
more powerful than he is. He’s holding me back!”
Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones - Official Novelisation
As to the question of whether Obi-Wan was actually holding Anakin back, the answer is a very definite yes. There are several occasions where he stresses to Anakin that he needs to slow down, take stock and trust in the Living Force to guide his actions rather than blundering around like a half-stunned gundark.