In both of the main Lord of the Rings wikias, it is stated that Númenor was raised by the Valar;

Númenor (Q: "westland", pron. [ˈnuːmenor]) or Númenórë (pron. [ˌnuːmeˈnoːre]), known in the Common Speech as Westernesse and in Adûnaic as Anadûnê, was one of the names of the isle of Elenna, which was raised from the Great Sea by the Valar in the beginning of the Second Age.

-From Tolkien Gateway

Númenor was a great island brought up out of the sea by the Valar for the Edain to dwell in, in the early Second Age after the final ruin of Beleriand, and was where the Númenoreans originated from.

From Lord of the Rings Fandom wikia

I mean, Númenor was in the sea, and the 2 Ainur associated with the sea are Ulmo and Ossë. I can't imagine Tulkas swimming down to the bottom of the ocean to lift Númenor up.

So, who does Valar refer to? Is it stated in any of Tolkien's writing if it was Ulmo, Lord of Waters; or his Maiar Ossë, who raised Númenor?


According to the published Silmarillion, it was raised by Ossë (emphasis mine):

A land was made for the Edain to dwell in, neither part of Middle-earth nor of Valinor, for it was sundered from either by a wide sea; yet it was nearer to Valinor. It was raised by Ossë out of the depths of the Great Water, and it was established by Aulë and enriched by Yavanna; and the Eldar brought thither flowers and fountains out of Tol Eressëa.

The Silmarillion IV Akallabêth

This dates back to Tolkien's earliest drafts on the subject, from 1936ish:

Many men had not come into the old Tales. They are still at large on earth. The Fathers of Men are given a land to dwell in, raised by Osse and Aule in the great Western Sea.

History of Middle-earth V The Lost Road and Other Writings Part 1: "The Fall of Númenor and the Lost Road" Chapter 2: "The Fall of Númenor" (i) The original outline

Every subsequent draft (which are mostly in The Lost Road and Morgoth's Ring, for those of you playing the home game) contains a substantially identical paragraph to that in the published Silmarillion.

  • FGIW! – Edlothiad May 8 '17 at 13:06
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    @Voronwë Worth mentioning. This is the only mention of "raised by" involving Numenor in the books I have digitally (Which is almost all) – Edlothiad May 8 '17 at 13:10
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    Incidentally, one wonders why it wasn't Ulmo doing the heavy lifting. Maybe he had a bad back – Jason Baker May 8 '17 at 13:21
  • Well, there is a comment in 'Morgoth's Ring' that the last major action (in terms of shaping the world) by the Valar was the raising of the Pelori during the First Age. The Valar had already kind of 'bowed out' by this point - similarly it was Eonwe leading the Host of the Valar rather than Manwe or Tulkas or Orome. – cometaryorbit May 10 '17 at 3:51
  • Although, wow ... the power level of the Maiar must vary way more than I had thought. Creating an island that big is orders of magnitude more impressive than Gandalf and the Balrog's fire-and-lightning fight on the mountainside or Sauron's smoke clouds - although I guess Gandalf the Grey might not have had access to all of Olorin's power and the Balrog and Sauron were weakened by the time of LOTR. Still, though... – cometaryorbit May 10 '17 at 3:55

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