It was a hit-or-miss ability for Vader
A little background first.
Force visions [...] an ability once possessed by all Jedi, [...] had
However, as established, Anakin was one of the few with this ability. But in addition to being a rare ability, it was also very nebulous.
Yoda, as one of the Jedi Order's most powerful masters, was able to
see into the future, though he understood that Force prophecy was not
absolute and that the future was always in motion.
That said, it appears that Anakin did not have the ability to view the future on command. He only had visions in his sleep, and those unbidden. It is not clear what the catalyst for the visions were, perhaps angst about those he cared about, but the fact of the matter is that he had no control over them.
In addition to that, having the ability to see the future does not mean you'll know everything about it. For example, IRL I am a programmer, however, someone else with the same ability will not make the same programs or pursue the same technologies that I do. Sidious clearly had designs on Luke and so devoted time and energy to knowing what Luke would do so that he could plan for it. Vader was also interested in Luke, but for different reasons and to different ends. So it's not surprising that there were areas of no overlap of information.
In short, Sidious and Vader were focusing on different things, and Vader could not reliably see the future anyway.
all quotes courtesy of wookieepedia