In this first look on Avengers: Infinity War, we see the actors of Peter Parker/Spider-Man and Peter Quill/Star-Lord standing right next to each other:
Given this, I would like to know: did these two ever meet in the comics?
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In Guardians Team-Up #9 opens with Peter Quill going after Spider-Man to recover his father's gun. It turns out the gun was stolen by another character disguised as Spider-Man and they team up.
@Jack's answer is the most accurate as Guardians Team-Up #9 (2015) is the only time Peter Quill and Spider-Man actually meet each other, i.e. talk to each other, act together etc.
However, there are two other instances of these two "meeting"... in a way.
As pointed out by @tobiasvl in a comment1, Guardians of the Galaxy #14 (2016) has a long flashback of the Guardians (including Flash Thompson) rescuing Spider-Man from the Skrulls. When Spidey's brought to the Guardians' ship, he's out cold and they drop him back on Earth, so while Peter Quill somehow met Spider-Man, Spidey didn't meet Quill per se (as he has no recollection of what happened).
"Zodiac", the first arc of the 2012 Avengers Assemble run, has the Avengers teaming up with the Guardians of the Galaxy to defeat Thanos. In issue #8, everyone of them joins the fight on Earth for the final fight, including Star-Lord and Spider-Man. While they don't talk to each other, and the Guardians leave shortly after, you know... Beating Thanos' butt builds bonds?
1 As per their other comment, no, Spider-Man isn't featured in Guardians Team-Up #1 (2015), he's only on the cover.