I think this statement doesn't necessarily focus on robots, but rather different groups.
If you generalize your list of events, we get to a more broadly defined repetition:
- Out of a single group, a second group emerges.
- This second group pushes away from the first group. The harder it is to get away from the first group, the more violent their attempts.
- The two factions now hate eachother, because everyone prefers their own group.
- The second group, once free, tries to be their own entity. They try to be like the first group (but with minor differences).
- Over time, the first and second group start interacting. As time progresses, their relationship turns from hate to mutual respect (even if limited).
- Over more time, the groups start to mingle again. They respect eachother's differences.
- Whether naturally or artifically, the groups starts joining together again.
- In the end, the two groups are indistinguishable from eachother. We have a single group again.
And then it repeats.
Please notice that you could also swap the order of operations around:
- Many different group start accepting eachother's ways.
- Over time, the groups start blending and assimilating eachother.
- At some point, the groups are no longer compatible.
- The groups start segregating again because they are not compatible.
- However, the whole (e.g. the government) tries to force these groups to stick together.
- It doesn't work. Violent separations occurs.
- There are many groups again.
But they explain the same principle: A diversity will try to become a unity (peace). But when it no longer can be a unity, it reverts back to being a diversity (violence). Until it wants to become a unity again (peace).
And every time a period of violence begins; we regress back to "the dark ages" and have to build society from scratch. Because the violence undoes so much of what has been built by peace.
It's a never ending cycle of peace and violence. A cycle of unity and division.
If you extend this idea philosophically, it basically states that we are a wave that goes up and down; always different, but always the same.
The usage of "All Along The Watchtower" loosely confirms this idea that history repeats itself. Anders wrote the song in the distant past; even though it is a song that current humans (who, to Anders, are in the distant future) know and love.
And specifically to this song (out of universe), it has been recreated (covered) so many times. Every version slightly different than the previous one, but it's basically the same song.
Maybe Anders didn't even write the song. Maybe someone else, in Anders' distant past, wrote it. There's nothing in the story to suggest that, but it might as well be the case if we are all subject to endless repetition anyway.
These same current humans (us) are again trying to make a second group (= machines), and we are also close to infighting between human groups internally.
Even though we are both descendants of humans and cylons, and therefore we carry the genetic proof that peace is the only way forward; we are too far removed from our past to remember the mistakes that were made. We're too blinded by the present to remember the past.
And if we cannot remember it, then we cannot remember to not make the same mistake.
In the final scene of the finale, we see "divine Gaius" and "divine Six" (I have no better names for them) specifically discuss how the current humans are falling into the same traps that the Kobol/Caprica humans did.
The script I found sadly does not reveal which character says which, but this is the final conversation between divine Gaius and divine Six:
A: Commercialism, decadence, technology run amok. Remind you of anything? Take your pick.
B: Kobol, earth-the real earth before this one- Caprica before the fall.
All of this has happened before- but the question remains.
A: Does all of this have to happen again? This time, I bet no.
B: You know, I've never known you to play the optimist. Why the change of heart?
A: Mathematics, law of averages. Let a complex system repeat itself long enough, eventually something surprising might occur. That too is in God's plan.
B: You know it doesn't like that name.
A: Silly me. Silly, silly me.
They specifically list the repetitions:
- Kobol - It collapsed due to tribal disputes (plus murderous cylons), the civilization broke into peaces and turned towards the 12 planets, leaving the old unified civilization as a thing of the past (since the humans in BSG think of Kobol as a myth).
- Caprica - The twelve colonies were united under a single government. But the Cylons were stil outsiders; and destroyed Caprica to begin the war against humans. Before that war, there was already dissent among humans; which could be considered "normal" nationalist behavior (but the lesson of the cycle is that this dissent contributes to the cycle repeating).
- (real) Earth - I forget why it was ruined, but I seem to remember it being impossible to live there due to the longterm effects of global war. Again, it was broken by war.
- (second) Earth - This is where divine Six/Gaius thinks that the cycle will be broken, but we are not sure if it actually will be broken this time. If it won't, then violence will consume us and tear us down.
The repetition is clear: Peace never lasts forever. No matter how many good things are built on the foundation of peace; a period of sufficient violence can wipe it all away and we have to start all over.
One cool (though slightly colonial) idea that stems from this:
The old religion was polytheistic. They had many gods, each having their own field. Although it is only confirmed in the final scene of the finale, by the existence of "divine" Gaius and Six; God (monotheistic) is the true force of the universe.
In other words, the only way forwards is unity (one god, one people, global peace) and not division (many gods, many people, prone to infighting and violence)
I don't like the religious connotation it gives off; but I do like the philosophical similarities that are being drawn here.