This is probably one of the books from the Pit Dragon trilogy by Jane Yolen, specifically the second one, Heart's Blood.
Golden, Jakkin, and Akki flee to the mountains, but Golden is badly injured. Pursued by the Wardens, they are forced to leave Golden behind in a cave which they had sheltered in during Dark After, using Heart's Blood's body as a door and heater. Jakkin manumits the traitorous Erikkin, and Heart's Blood dies from a stinger shot in the neck, her body saving Jakkin and Akki. The only shelter they have during Dark After, is Heart's Blood's body, so they crawl into her birth sac. In the morning, Jakkin and Akki are reborn out of the dragon blood, and became the first real human Austarians, linked to each other and Heart's Blood's five hatchlings.
Jakkin and Akki are male and female. Dragons are common on Austar IV. Jakkin and Akki gain special powers by nesting in the birth sac, but it's the ability to communicate with each other as dragons do. And, from the Google Books excerpt:
Jakkin added, "They can't be ridden. With a weight on Heart's Blood's back she couldn't even raise her wings. And if you sat there without a saddle of some sort, your legs and groin would be slashed terribly by her scales. The scales move when she moves, and they slice at a touch."