I read this short story in about 1974 or 1975. It was in a library book, definitely a hardcover collection of science fiction short stories.
Two men are marooned in space. They gain access to an alien space station (or maybe some sort of emergency shelter). They don't know anything about the aliens (there are none present; the station was either abandoned, automated, or an emergency outpost). The story is about them trying to figure out what the stuff in the station does, and whether any of it is food that they can eat. The phrase "One man's meat is another man's poison" was used several times; it's the first time I ever encountered it (I was about 8-9 at the time).