In modern comics, I believe, and in the movies for certain, Peter Parker is shown attending "Midtown High School" in Manhattan. Was it always so? Did early comics show him attending school in Queens, where he lives?
Yes, he has always attended Midtown High School, or Public School 108.
While the school is shown right in Amazing Fantasy #15, the first instance I can find of the school being identified is in Amazing Spider-Man #2.
The location of the school is left a little ambiguous in the new movie, but Peter is still residing in Queens. The name "Midtown" just serves to confuse things as most people associate "Midtown" with Manhattan.
Worth noting: the school we see in Spider-Man: Homecoming is largely based on The Bronx High School of Science