I remember reading, or at least starting, a novel probably 25 years ago where the protagonist is in a spaceship travelling to different planets where each one was experiencing different Biblical progression. That is, one planet had already undergone the End Time whereas another had just been Created - and so on and so forth.
This sounds like it could be C. S. Lewis's Space Trilogy:
The stories take place on Malacandra (Mars), Perelandra (Venus) and Earth, respectively.
It's been a long time since I read these, but (with a refresher from Wikipedia [link above]), I believe that the first book discusses Earth's Fall; the second takes place on Perelandra, which is in a "Garden of Eden" state, and the third, on Earth, would correspond to the end times. I may have the first and last transposed (but I don't think so).
In the first book, Out of the Silent Planet, a spaceship is used to travel to Mars. I'd be hard-pressed to call his means of transport to Venus a spaceship, exactly, but he does travel through space to get there. In the third book, of course, no space travel is needed - everything happens here on Earth.