As JohnP's answer states, the image in question is from an out-of-universe cast photo from Star Trek V: The Final Frontier.
The question is asking though, what clues in the image itself can be used to determine what time period the image was taken?
I propose that we can use Uhura's hairstyle as the primary clue. Specifically, the amount and particular style of gray hair she has.
For example - in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home - she has little to no gray at all:
In Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, her hair color is essentially the same as that in Star Trek IV:
Yet, Star Trek V: The Final Frontier is the only time we see Uhura with this particular style and amount of grey hair:
So - from an in-universe perspective only, we can assume that this image was taken sometime after the events of Star Trek IV and before the events of Star Trek VI (in other words: roughly around the tine of Star Trek V)
Additionally, Sulu has white undergarments in Star Trek VI, so the image can be assumed to be prior to his captaincy of Excelsior