No - if Wolverine's wrist was bent, the claws would just emerge from the wrist instead.
In fact, this very thing occurs in Wolverines #11 (2015). In a flashback, it is revealed that a heavily-intoxicated Wolverine once popped his claws through his wrists by accident:
Years before that, however, in the 1995 "Age of Apocalypse" arc we saw a version of Wolverine who had lost his left hand altogether. Most enemies assumed that this meant the claws on that arm were useless, but learned the hard way that the claws could still emerge directly from the severed wrist:
Now, all that said, it still doesn't answer the question of whether or not Logan's adamantium-covered bones would prevent the claws from emerging. I wasn't able to find any examples of that occurring, but if I had to speculate, I would imagine that the claws would STILL pop out regardless.
Keep in mind that the claws are just bone (albeit extremely dense, hard bone) attached to muscles within the forearm. These bones, even when covered in metal, would have a certain degree of flexibility at the attachment point. Therefore, if one or all claws met resistance when moving outward, the muscle would flex and the tip would just move along that axis until the resistance stopped. The claw(s) would move inside the emergence path, and it would probably hurt like blazes, but they would still come out. Or the muscle/tendons would tear apart, in which case the claw would THEN move and come out in the wrong place such as the top/bottom of the arm.
Differences between movie and comic versions:
It's also important to note a major difference between the movie & comic versions of Wolverine. In the comics, any anatomical references seemed to indicate that the claws were positioned above the arm bones, and thus emerged through the upper part of the hand and out just above the knuckles:
In the movies, however, the claws are positioned between the arm bones (which are split apart at the wrist), and emerge through the hand bones, pushing them out of the way and emerging directly between the knuckles instead of above them:
This difference may seem minor, but it is vital to the question since the initial position of the bones within the arm would not only determine IF they could be deflected by the arm bones, but also which direction they would go when it happened.