Your answer is actually in the movie itself, only a couple of lines before the one you quoted. When Odin first starts showing Thor & Jane the book, he says the opening line:
ODIN: There are relics that predate the universe itself. What lies within her appears to be one of them. The Nine Realms are not eternal.
They had a dawn, as they will have a dusk. But before that dawn the
dark forces, the Dark Elves, reigned absolute and unchallenged.
[Odin carefully opens an ancient, beautifully illuminated book and
selects a page. As Thor reads from it, the illustration moves.]
THOR: “Before the eternal night, the Dark Elves come to steal away your light.” These were the stories mother told to us as children.
ODIN: Their leader, Malekith, made a weapon out of that darkness, it was called the Aether. While the other relics often appear as
stones, the Aether is fluid, and ever changing. It changes matter into
dark matter, and seeks out host bodies, drawing strength from their
life force. Malekith sought to use the Aether’s power to return the
universe to one of darkness. But, after eternities of bloodshed, my
father Bor finally triumphed; ushering in a peace that lasted
thousands of years.
He then continues to explain about the Dark Elves and Malekith making a weapon out of the darkness. Note that the topic he is explaining is not just the Aether itself, but all of the "relics". Odin is merely stating that Malekith harnessed one of them into a weapon called the Aether.
It's also important to note that even in-universe, not everyone calls them "Infinity Stones". I think the first time we hear Thor call them that in-universe is at the end of Avengers 2:
Thor: I have no choice. The Mind Stone is the fourth of the Infinity Stones to show up in the last few years. That's not a
coincidence. Someone has been playing an intricate game and has made
pawns of us. But once all these pieces are in position...
Tony Stark: Triple Yahtzee?
Steve Rogers: You think you can find out what's coming?
Obviously, they had already been called that previously in GotG, but since Thor wasn't present for those events it indicates that he heard the term somewhere on Earth or Asgard between the events of "Thor 2: The Dark World" and "Avengers: Age of Ultron".