In the episode "Morty's Mind-blowers" Rick says:
"I don't sort by color, Morty. I'm not a mouse in a European children's book."
Call me clueless, but what book is Rick referencing?
In the series, the title character is an anthropomorphic mouse who lives in New Mouse City on Mouse Island. A best-selling author, Geronimo Stilton works as a journalist and editor for the fictional newspaper The Rodent's Gazette.
Considering this book is a bestselling European series featuring a mouse, and far more popular than the other books mentioned here, it is most likely the correct answer.
He likely referenced Sort It Out!
Sort It Out! by Barbara Mariconda, Sherry Rogers (Illustrator)
Packy the Packrat's mother has had enough! It's time that he sorts through his ever-growing collection of trinkets and puts them away. Told in rhyme, the text leads the reader to participate in the sorting process by categorizing Packy's piles of things according to like characteristics and attributes. The story promotes and reinforces analogous thinking--a critical thinking skill in math, science, and life. In the -For Creative Minds- education section at the back of the book, the reader can explore even more attributes and characteristics of objects, including color, size, texture, shape, and material.
Or possibly Mouse Paint by Ellen Stoll Walsh from 1995, because authors of Rick and Morty are of the appropriate age to have been read it.
It could be Maisy mouse... when I was a kid (late 90's) I used to watch the videos and read the books of her sorting things by color.
"Maisy Mouse is a fictional mouse from the picture book series created by British illustrator Lucy Cousins."