Horcruxes probably couldn’t be traced by magic.
Similarly to how the Horcruxes were protected against many spells and charms (such as Accio being unable to Summon them) it’s highly unlikely that there would be any way to simply trace their location using a spell. If there was, it’s likely that at least Dumbledore would have known about it and tried using it before resorting to researching the Dark Lord’s life and hoping to find them that way. However, all Dumbledore's knowledge of them instead comes from knowledge of the Dark Lord rather than magically tracing Horcruxes. That would likely mean he either tried and failed to magically trace the Horcruxes or he knew no such thing was possible, either way meaning he couldn’t do it. In addition, Dumbledore was capable of doing things most wizards couldn’t, so if he couldn’t trace the Horcruxes by magic, it would probably be just about impossible, if not entirely impossible.
It is theoretically possible that there was such a way to detect Horcruxes and trace their location, but that would require Dumbledore, Harry, Ron, and Hermione to all have been entirely incapable of using it or unaware of it, which seems highly unlikely.