As your question is based on the MCU version of Asgardians, I will base my answers on the same.
Asgardians are god-like beings and superior to humans both technologically as well as physically. Some of their physical abilities (as mentioned here on the Marvel-Movies Wikia) are:
Super Density: The Asgardians' molecular structure is denser than Humans. This contributes to their super strength and durability. The materials of Asgard are denser then those of Earth, as is mentioned with Asgardian metals, used to make many items for the use of Asgardians such as their swords and armor. The denser, stronger materials of Asgard are the reason why Asgardians themselves are denser.
Accelerated Healing: Even though Asgardians are resistant to injury, if they do get hurt they heal remarkablily quickly. Elliot Randolph survived a fatal blow with very limited medical attention, and Thor healed from Loki stabbing him in the gut with a knife quite quickly.
Longevity: Asgardians have an extremely long life span and can endure for thousands of years. Some can regenerate and extend their lifespan by magical means. (e.g. When Odin enters the Odinsleep).
And speaking of their physiology:
Asgardians resemble humans of Caucasian and African descent while their sister race, the Vanir, resemble humans of Asian descent. Their body tissues are three times as dense as that of humans which contributes to their superhuman strength and durability. They heal remarkably quickly and can even recover from fatal blows. They live for an average of five thousand years due to their healing abilities. Their blood is red, like humans. While able to withstand human strength blows and even human-made projectiles, they can be wounded with Earthly weapons, given enough strength by the user or force of the projectile.
The "magic" referred to by the Asgardians is actually a type of energy manipulation that is not yet invented/discovered by humans (find the details here).
So, their superior body and dense body tissues are helpful to take on heavy blows. While their accelerated healing power is quite useful in battles. However, speaking about a normal Asgardian and comparing him with the likes of Thor Odinson or Loki etc., you can find the answer for that here (comic-book explanation). For more details on Asgardian medical technology, feel free to check this.