I'm going to approach this a different way. Others have discussed holosuite dynamite explosives, and holographic equipment for converting different emissions. How's about a holographic atomic (fusion) bomb?
Assuming that the holodeck could manipulate real hydrogen atoms to produce the required isotopes, input the energy required to create the fusion, and then detonate the bomb - I don't know what maximum yield a standard TNG holodeck could produce, but I suspect it is immense.
So I don't think you would need a warp core to explode a ship.
But if you wanted a warp core explosion, you could only get so far from first principles. Potentially, the holodeck could "project" the equipment needed to produce the antimatter from the base elements in the air (the large hadron collider is just a large tube with magnets) Assuming it can generate containment fields strong enough to keep the output, problem solved.
The biggest issue would be more exotic elements. A hydrogen bomb is easy - lots of hydrogen in the air. But holodecks cannot produce dilithium - which may be required as a fuel.
If you have all the required raw ingredients, who needs to project a whole ship? A warp core overload-based explosion simply requires a warp core. They will explode outside a ship quite happily, so no reason they couldn't explode inside a holosuite.
Another thought regarding the feasibility: Assuming that replicator, transporter and holosuite technology are reasonably similar in their basic principles, when we need to detonate a warp core, we have to eject it physically. There is no discussion of isolating a core component of the system via transporter and beaming it a large distance away from the ship.
Dilithium cannot be replicated (but I believe it can be transferred via transporter, at least in some stable form) so it's possible there is some other unnamed process - maybe even a pure form of energy - that is so unstable that the transporters, and certainly the holodeck transmitters, would be completely unable to handle it.
PS: I always assumed holodeck technology is primarily an advanced physics engine - if you're given a holo-projected revolver, even with the safeties off, the computer calculates the energies produced by the simulated gunpowder, the force of the simulated recoil, the heat and light generated by the explosion, and the pressure on the recipient's skin as the bullet pushes through them. Unless the safeties are on, in which case the computer determines a safe force to exert on human skin and then deletes the bullet (depending on the rules of that particular simulation - the user might want bullets to bounce off him or her, for example).
So I always assumed the holo emitters can produce certain forces and energies, but I'm not aware of them ever directly producing compounds, merely simulating them. I may be wrong though...
PPS: As pointed out, I've focussed on the "is it possible" whereas the question asks for evidence. It turns out that an impulse engine overload is directly compared to an H-Bomb's yield when destroying the "Planet-killer" - in "The making of TNG", a match is to nuclear energy as an H-bomb is to a warp core https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Hydrogen_bomb
Unfortunately, as other answers have shown, evidence is scant - yet supposition is plentiful!