I've read in several places that Altered Carbon just takes place on Earth, several hundred years from now. But nearly every external shot at night seems to show two moons in the sky, and neither one is in the same position or relative size as the actual Earth Moon. So where does the main story of Kovachs investigating the murder take place?
5Most of those shots are either flashbacks or hallucinations, and are set on Harlan's world, where Takeshi is from before he was needlecast to Earth. Note that it actually has 3 moons... See also altered-carbon.wikia.com/wiki/Harlan%27s_World– RossFeb 12, 2018 at 18:54
"Joel Kinnaman plays the main character Takeshi Kovacs, but he’s not exactly who he is. In this world set in the year 2584, death is not permanent and your body is not who you are. In Altered Carbon, people die and their consciousness can be uploaded to a new body, or sleeve as they call it in the show." - netflixlife.com/2018/01/30/…– ValorumFeb 12, 2018 at 19:18
1@Ross Wait those external shots of the two moons (or three, whatever) are connected to the flashbacks of him in Envoy training? I never noticed that. Maybe I need to be less stoned when I watch this.– WakeDemons3Feb 12, 2018 at 19:26
It takes place in Bay City, Earth
(former San Francisco)
As stated, in the first episode Kovacs asks on which planet he is.
[INHALES DEEPLY] Where am I?
Alcatraz Prison. Bay City.
What planet, genius?
Both Alcatraz and the Golden Gate Bridge (as well as the city's name) indicate that Bay City was built on what was known as San Francisco.
As noted in the comments, all scenes which included several moons are located on Harlan's World and are mostly flashbacks. I have watched the whole series and I am sure that every location is presented consistently.
Pretty sure in the first episode when kovachs is revived he asks what planet he is on and he is told it is Earth.
The transcript is here so you can add the quotes to your answer with an edit.– TheLethalCarrot ♦Feb 13, 2018 at 11:30