There are cases when physical defects, injuries, etc. can cause different mental conditions. For example, I knew of a guy in real life who was super nice to everyone, but all of a sudden would randomly become angry and violent with certain people. Long story short, he found out he actually had a previously undiscovered brain tumor that was causing these outbursts.
Or athletes (like NFL players or fighters) where repeated blows to the head over their career will results in diminished mental capacity or other problems.
Is this something that Professor X and/or other Marvel telepaths would be able to "diagnose" (assuming the person had no distinct knowledge or memories of the cause)?