"Vibranium" is a coined word in English, based on the word "vibration", which in turn has a Latin base.
I am blindly assuming that when it was originally found in Wakanda, that's not what it was called. It may likely have had some similarly coined name in their language (based on Xhosa, IIRC, in the film anyway) meaning "power metal" or something.
Many years later, when other scientists got ahold of samples, they named it "Vibranium", and odds are the Wakandan scientists thought "Yeah, that's actually a pretty good name" and started using it in their research papers, and eventually it became the colloquial word for it.
I can't think of another example of what I mean other than "Maize...what you call 'corn' " from the old Mazola commercials, but I'll lay odds there's a linguistic term for when another country's term becomes the standard, even in the item's original country.
So the question is, has the original, historic term for Vibranium ever been named?
Probably more a question for the comics than the movie, but odds are it's the same answer.