It was most probably a short story, where a young son of one the brightest scientists surpasses father's intelligence while fresh out of kindergarten. At the end of the story father becomes overly jealous and the son with his fellow little colleagues leaves him for good on his way to become a posthuman.
If it's old, there is a good chance this is the 1946 story "Absalom" by Henry Kuttner. The son and his fellow mutants at the end psychically modify the dad so he can't harm the son in any way. But he can still nurse a secret hope for revenge, when the son himself has a child...
More information here: "Henry Kuttner's "Absalom" (short story, non-genre): Generation gap can be a major source of parents' heartache", Variety SF
I realise the other answer has been accepted but I'm adding this for completeness.
Another story mostly fitting the description by OP is "Odd John", by Olaf Stapledon (1935). John is physically underdeveloped but superhumanly intelligent, eventually developing abilities like telepathy.
There is a chapter-by-chapter summary at the Wikipedia page. For chapter 2:
The First Phase. His parents, and his life from birth (around 1910) to five years of age. At the age of four, he learns to speak; nine months later, he learns to count. He claims to learn all of mathematics, and develops an ability to visualise n-dimensional space.
The article also mentions that there were other earlier books following this general "Übermensch" plot, such as The Hampdenshire Wonder (1911, J D Beresford). I can add another: H G Wells' The Food of the Gods, although in that case the children also develop to physically enormous size (and the intelligence is a consequence of the larger brains, from what I remember).
In both Odd John and The Food Of The Gods the children surpass their parents' intelligence at an early age (although somewhat later in TFoTG, from what I remember) and ultimately leave them for good. I haven't read the Hampdenshire Wonder, though.
The only part of OP's description that may not match these is the father's jealousy; I can't remember that and it's not mentioned in the online summary for Odd John.