As people have mentioned in the comments already, the tractor beam-tech has been used many times throughout the Star Wars saga, besides just in A New Hope. (Honestly, this answer is more or less a recap + further exploration of the things people have already mentioned, but I'm gonna give it a go anyway.)
First of all, we have to keep in mind that fact that tractor beams are not really meant for the purpose of re-capturing escapees, holding off attackers, or reducing the effects of crash landings. They're meant for helping large ships dock inside of smaller ones, helping to ships dock together, moving cargo around, etc. So while they can be tactically useful in a pinch, that's not what they're really known for.
Also, tractor beams don't work well unless you're in relatively close range to them.
I would also assume that those things take quite a bit of energy to run, and even though I'm sure amped-up tractor beams, or at least a similar type of tech, could be pretty useful to hold up a blockade, would the cost really be with the benefit? Sure, a ship or two might escape, but the norm is that they won't, because who ever decided to make a blockade in the first place probably made sure they had the firepower to blast most ships that might try running it.
Next up, I would imagine that most tractor beams probably can be broken out of, if you have the power and/or speed to do so. I'm pretty sure I remember this happening or being mentioned as a possibility at some point in the Star Wars universe, but I can't quite remember exactly what part of the films, Rogue One, The Clone Wars, or Rebels it might have been in...
And again, as someone else has already mentioned, they do use tractor beams quite frequently in Rebels, so it's definitely not a case of them making up something for a plot point and to fix the problem the heroes are facing only to drop it after that and it never be used again.
As for your specific moments:
& 2. These are both dealing with something that's already got a lot of speed and is going to be pretty unpreditable (the guys on that Naboo ship knew they wanted to break through the blockade, so they made sure to gather plenty of speed and plan the best spot to get through; the Invisible Hand was, as you mentioned, crash-landing, on top of the fact that it's an enourmous ship and was traveling at a very high speed. Also, I feel like there probably were some smaller tractor beams in use on that landing pad, and they probably did reduce the crash quite considerably.)
You've got tons of starfighters out there, trying to attack a station the size of a small moon. They wouldn't have tractor beams surrounding the entire station. There probably were a couple located in specific places (like the places where you're actually supposed to enter with your ship), but the Rebels obviously would have made sure to avoid those.
The First Order didn't know they were running away until they actually did it. They probably didn't have time to turn on a tractor beam, get it going on full power, and catch that traitor and runaway before they got outside of its range. Besides, trying to use a tractor beam to catch Finn and Poe would have made it impossible for any First Order-loyal TIEs to also go after them. That would be a problem if they did somehow manage to get away from the beam, as there would be no other way to catch up to them then.
Ya mean that trench-run redo? Same thing here as with question #3.