I think the name of the textbook was "Odyssey". The book was published separately because I found it in the library. Something happened on the surface of the Earth so everyone lived underground. I remember that everyone was hairless. A boy found his way to the surface and found that it was okay to live upon and then he found other humans living there. I think I read it in 1973.
This is a very common theme for YA literature, but there are some widespread classics.
City of Ember by Jeanne DuPrau, well known and not much to say (except they do have hair!)
Outside by Andre Norton, girl escapes domed city and finds she has telepathy
Journey Outside by Mary Steele, families live on rafts floating on an underground river
And All Between by Zilpha Snyder, complex story with multiple groups, girl finds she has telekinesis.
This Time of Darkness by Helen Mary Hoover, rich people live at the top of the city and can still see the sky. Protagonist meets a boy from the outside.
The City Under Ground by Suzanne Martel, the city of Surreal finds there is another city stealing their electricity
Dark Universe by Daniel Galouye, basically Quest for Light.
I seem to recall one of these re-does the Allegory of the Cave, which I mention simply because you noted something about Odyssey.
The book is called "The City Under Ground" by Suzanne Martel published in 1964. Thank you Maury Markowitz for your help in finding this book. I also found it by combing through different book lists on Goodreads.