Wizard children get the ordinary Muggle-equivalent education up through about 5th or 6th grade. That's far enough to cover "The Three R's": Reading, 'riting, and 'rithmetic, to a reasonable if basic degree of proficiency in all of them. Beyond this, closest we see to a typical Muggle education is the number of essay-length and longer writing assignments.
One can understand why some of the other Muggle skills are neglected at this point. The further foundational math and science skills exist primarily to support engineering, and engineering in the magical world is in the main supplanted by magic. Want to build a bridge? Why learn geometry or materials science when you can just magic the bridge into place? Want to sell ball-point pens insted of quills? Why learn about inks or the physics of fluid dynamics when you can just magic the parts into place. Want to be a doctor? Why bother learning all that fuss about anatomy when you can just magically re-grow bones with a potion?
Which isn't to say the wizarding world neglects all science education. They just have a more-complete view of the natural world, and focus their time on (for their needs) the more practical areas of science. And so Potions replaces Chemistry, Charms replaces Physics, Herbology replaces Biology, Arithmancy replaces Calculus, and so on. You could make a good argument the wizard's school does a better job of teaching how the world actually works. It's not the wizards ignoring Muggle topics. They are at least aware the topics exist to some degree. Rather, it's the Muggles completely ignoring the magical aspects of the World.
Of course, that's not the whole of it. The wizarding world still functions on an economy. Wizard businesses still need to keep the books, and while basic arithmetic may be enough to get by in the highly-informal world shown to us by Ms Rowling, where everyone seems to know just about everyone else, the Muggle world teaches that those who know more math will be able to do better at business than those who don't, using data to do better at setting pricing, production levels, marketing, and all manner of other things.
We also only see the wizard's education system up through the High School level. We don't know what happens afterwards. For example, I'm sure Madam Pomfrey actually did spend quite a bit of time studying mundane anatomy before working in the Hogwarts hospital wing. If Ms Rowling ever really does want to extend the Harry Potter stories, I'm sure a 4-book series devoted to Harry's college years would be amazing.
But this question focuses specifically on literature, and this is the point that leaves me sad. I see no analogue in Hogwarts for literature at all. Forget Muggles; they don't seem to even study literature produced by wizards and witches.