Firstly, traveling too far into the past can be catastrophic and has been banned since 1899.
All attempts to travel back further than a few hours have resulted in catastrophic harm to the witch or wizard involved. It was not realized for many years why time travelers over great distances never survived their journeys. All such experiments have been abandoned since 1899, when Eloise Mintumble became trapped, for a period of five days, in the year 1402. Now we understand that her body had aged five centuries in its return to the present and, irreparably damaged, she died in St. Mungo’s Hospital for Magical Maladies and Injuries shortly after we managed to retrieve her. What is more, her five days in the distant past caused great disturbance to the life paths of all those she met, changing the course of their lives so dramatically that no fewer than twenty-five of their descendants vanished in the present, having been “un-born”.
Even if we ignore the possibility of such disasters, there is no evidence in the Harry Potter universe about traveling to the future using Time Turners.
So (taking your initial example), lets just say you travel 24 hours back in time to do something and finish the aforementioned work in 2 hours. You have no means to get back to the current time other than taking the longer way back i.e., wait until your future self uses the time turner to travel back.