- We don't know yet...
- One can assume the stones know the intent of the user
- There is a good chance that a second attack would not occur
There is no evidence yet addressing what has happened. The only effects we have seen from Thanos' actions affected the heroes we have come to love. Beyond this we don't know.
However, based on the events of the film we may have some idea of the result:
We know that Thanos simply is trying to help everyone out by reducing the strain on the universe's finite resources. That is his plan and his motivation; to keep the rest of the universe from befalling a fate similar to his home planet...
During the events of the film:
We also know that when engaging the Guardians on Knowhere Thanos was manipulating reality in real time. I do not remember who but of Drax and Mantis he turned one into blocks and the other into strips, an homage to the comics as I understand it. (I think the characters were affected in that order respectively). Whether this was done intentionally by Thanos or how the stone understood his desire is unclear, but either way the stone acted based upon his desires in the situation. He wanted those characters to not be a threat so he could "consult" with Gamora and Quill. I feel pretty safe in my assumption that Thanos was not thinking "I want there to be (this many) blocks of him exactly (this big) and (this many) strips of her (exactly this wide and long) falling to the floor. Unless he did, the stone took some artistic license in its actions, but the desire was still adhered to.
Considering your question:
Given that interaction I think it would be safe to assume that the gauntlet as a whole would act similarly. If it did exactly as Thanos desired to the letter then the only reason those societies would be affected again is if he desired it to be so. Despite his hardliner actions Thanos is still acting... rationally... so I would not see those civilizations affected again. If the gauntlet acts without specific direction from its wielder then it would take the subconscious desires into account when acting and again, I would not see those civilizations affected.