I've searched here, Google, Wikipedia, etc. without luck. I would have read this book after about 2004 but probably more than 5 years ago.
As best I recall the book has a near-future setting, but most people wear augmented-reality goggles as part of their daily life. If you travel through a city, you can see advertising overlaid on blank walls that's published to everyone, but you can also subscribe to specific channels of overlays; how the city appeared in a specific era, for example, or how it was represented in a famous game/movie. Some people publish AR travelogues, marking up reality for other people to view. There is also widespread use of 3D printing technology, something of a maker culture.
The protagonists are recruited/instructed to recover some MacGuffin - something dangerous in the wrong hands, like a bottle of radioisotopes or the like. I think this takes place somewhere in the western US.
As they chase leads, they discover that hidden in the real world, there are hidden economies. You need to have correctly-programmed goggles even to see them; the economies function using various game-type economic/social systems and perpetuate themselves by printing their own goggles to control access. This part of the novel takes place in the EU, I think.
The protagonists eventually manage to track their target to a ship (I recall it being in the North Atlantic) and there's a fight which ends with them tossing the MacGuffin into the ocean.
I'd like to re-read this book, since I'm very interested in how the hidden economies/secret societies worked. If I'm not conflating a completely different story, there was even a secret society that functioned by passing around copies of a book, and rigorously following the instructions in that book. (The implication was that the book itself was somehow an intelligent agent processing itself by means of its followers.)