Voyager's standard complement of weapons includes 42 photon torpedoes and 2 tri-cobalt devices.
The ship is initially equipped with 42 photon torpedoes with type VI warheads and two tricobalt devices, both of which are used to destroy the Caretaker's array. --"Caretaker". Star Trek: Voyager.
By the fourth episode of Voyager known as The Cloud the script reveals:
CHAKOTAY: We have a complement of thirty eight photon torpedoes at our disposal, Captain.
JANEWAY: And no way to replace them after they're gone.
Since tri-cobalt weapons are super-high yield explosives, the weapons are probably used as high-yield artillery explosives, possibly as mines against chasing starships, or for disrupting subspace preventing ships from easily accessing subspace, at least temporarily.
Such a powerful weapon would make a very fast ship like Voyager able to provide one or two passes of incredible firepower, certainly implied from its design with five torpedo tubes, two forward, two aft and one dorsal I can easily see loading one tri-cobalt weapon in each set, one firing forward, and one as it passes would make a devastating single attack, perfect for a fleet manuever designed to cover a retreat or as an opening volley in a multi-ship conflict.
Like many Federation starships of its time, Voyager was armed with phasers and photon torpedoes and protected by a deflector shield system. The vessels torpedo launchers were compatable with quantum torpedoes as well, with some modification. Additionally, Voyager carried spatial charges and tricobalt devices, the latter of which were not normally carried on Starfleet vessels at the time. (VOY: "Caretaker", "Dreadnought", "Relativity", "The Voyager Conspiracy") --Memory Alpha >Voyager