He didn’t know
There is no evidence to show that Voldemort ever knew Snape had betrayed him by revealing his plans to Dumbledore; on the contrary, there is a fair amount of circumstantial evidence to indicate that he didn’t. For one thing, if he had known, Snape would almost certainly have died before Philosopher’s Stone even begins, and all seven books would have been very different.
Voldemort definitely knew that Snape leaked the information because Pettigrew was his insider man.
Your logic does not really hold water here.
As QuestionAuthority’s answer says, Voldemort knew that Dumbledore had heard the entire prophecy—and thus knew more than Snape was able to tell Voldemort. He also knew, through Pettigrew, that the Potters were hidden under a Fidelius Charm. But that was all he knew.
It so happens that the Fidelius Charm probably came about mainly because Snape told Dumbledore that Voldemort had interpreted the prophecy to refer to the Potters, not the Longbottoms—but how would Voldemort have known about this? There are only really two ways Voldemort could have found out: from his spy Pettigrew, or from Snape himself.
That Snape didn’t volunteer the information to Voldemort himself does not need much by way of convincing argumentation. He would know that doing so would be signing his own death warrant. No need to even entertain the notion.
And Pettigrew almost certainly couldn’t have told Voldemort, because there’s no reason to believe he ever knew. As soon as Dumbledore found out about the Potters being targeted, he used Snape’s feelings for Lily to make him turn spy against Voldemort, which was a very valuable asset to him. He would obviously not do anything to jeopardise it if he could help it, and telling anyone—even those closest to him—would be doing just that. So he almost certainly never told anyone else that Snape was now a spy for him, including Pettigrew, and Pettigrew never knew.
What Pettigrew knew
Pettigrew knew that Dumbledore wanted the Potters protected, and he might even have suspected that this was based on spy intel that Dumbledore had received about Voldemort’s plans. But the only way he could have known that the intel came from Snape would be if Dumbledore had told him (or if Snape had, but the point two paragraphs up holds true here as well), which would have been a very unwise and un-Dumbledorish thing to do.
What Voldemort knew
Voldemort in turn knew the first half of the prophecy from Snape. He knew from his own knowledge of the wizarding world and his spies (presumably) that the prophecy could refer to either the Potters or the Longbottoms, and he knew from Snape that Dumbledore knew this too (if not more). He also knew from Pettigrew that the Potters had been Fideliussed away on Dumbledore’s orders.
He could not know, however, why Dumbledore had chosen to protect the Potters, nor whether he had taken (or was taking) steps towards protecting the Longbottoms in a similar manner. He also did not know whether the final part of the prophecy had made it clear that it did indeed refer to the Potters and not the Longbottoms, so that only the Potters needed protection. All he knew was that he selected the most likely family, and this family was protected by Dumbledore.
He was clever enough to know that Dumbledore had spies within Death Eater ranks just as Voldemort himself had spies within Phoenix ranks. Even if he did ever suspect that Dumbledore’s decision to protect the Potters was borne out of spy intel, rather than simply based on the information he himself already had available to him, there is nothing that would indicate that Snape in particular was the source of that information.