As firmly stated by J.K.Rowling, she tried to reimagine a universe almost completely based off British folklore. I think what she said on Pottermore about Vampires also apply for Dwarves:
Although vampires exist in the world of Harry Potter [...] they play no meaningful part in the story. The vampire myth is so rich, and has been exploited so many times in literature and on film, that I felt there was little I could add to the tradition. In any case, vampires are a tradition of Eastern Europe, and in general I tried to draw from British mythology and folklore when creating adversaries for Harry. (emphasis mine)
Dwarves are a fairly recent fantasy topos, being essentially re-introduced for the first time since Viking age by Tolkien in his Lord of the Rings saga, and adopted since then by almost every high fantasy writer.
Rowling was different: she tried to invent her own universe drawing autonomously from myth and folklore, not secondarily from other literary sources.
In real world mythology we almost never hear of Dwarves in the fantasy sense, but extremely often we hear of Goblins or Elf-like creatures. Things like the Brazilian Curupira, the German Kobold and the irish Leprechaun seems all to be derived from the same stock of mythological Little People, a myth so ancient that we found it widespread in all human cultures. In this context the Norse Dwarf is just a local representative of this ancestral lore, while "Goblin" is a more generic catch-all term for all these entities (while still retaining a bit of britishness to it).