The whole idea of a time paradox duplicate is that they don't survive, so that paradoxes (paradoxi?) can be avoided. The duplicates are filled with doom radiation that eventually destroys them. The best explanation would be that the fulfillment of Senator Travers' "doom" was that he simply blinked out of existence. Granted, this is different than most other characters who met their doom in more violent fashions, but who's to say what the whims and follies of doom may be.
Also, he did survive for quite a long time as a duplicate: he had time enough to go to Harvard, become a community organizer, become a senator, and run for President. That's a long time to dodge doom for. Perhaps the doom radiation starts to really kick in only when a duplicate gets too close to triggering a paradox.