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I don't understand how the room created the tunnel for Neville because of several things:

  1. The room always came out at a different location, so the tunnel would move every day.

  2. Don't you think someone would have noticed a tunnel from, say the fourth floor, going into Hogsmeade?

  3. How could the tunnel get through the castle's protective enchantments? Personally, I would definitely qualify sneaking into a hidden room through a concealed tunnel entering by stealth. Also, the school's security was tightened a lot in the sixth book. As Hermione say's,:

    "Because the castle's protected by more than walls, you know," said Hermione. "There are all sorts of enchantments on it to stop people entering by stealth.

    Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

  4. It's called a Room of Requirement, not a room and long tunnel of requirement, so I would think that the magic of the room would be limited to inside the room.

  5. It said the reason the Room of Requirement created the tunnel was because Neville needed food, was there no better way than to open a tunnel to the Hogshead? For example, would it have worked to open a concealed tunnel to the kitchens?

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    Gooooooood question. Probably easy to explain it away by saying that the tunnel is probably there, regardless, it's just that when you 'need' it, the entrance to such tunnel becomes apparent. Alternatively, it becomes a tunnel. – Möoz Oct 4 '18 at 2:03
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    Perhaps it's because Hogwarts doesn't protect against its own enchantments? But Harry Potter has a ton of plot holes, so this is probably just one of many. – Kai Oct 4 '18 at 2:15
  • That tunnel existed in another dimension similar to how platform nine and three quarters existed on King's Cross station. – Captain Cold Oct 4 '18 at 2:58
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    Talking about Hogwarts' security, it wasn't infallible. Forget about founders' advanced magic.. Even Draco was able to find an alternate way into Hogwarts bypassing the security of even Dumbledore.. – Captain Cold Oct 4 '18 at 3:01
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    It's a magical "room" that can be any shape and size, and contain almost any item. That shape can include a long tunnel if it decides it wants to include a long tunnel, without the magic being "outside" of the Room of Requirement. – Anthony Grist Oct 4 '18 at 9:23
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Its possible Hogsmeade was in some of Hogwarts' new protective enchantments.

In the seventh book when the trio dissaparate into Hogsmeade we see that it was at least inside some of Hogwarts' reinforced boundaries.

The air was rent by a scream that sounded like Voldemort's when he had realized the cup had been stolen: It tore at every nerve in Harry's body, and he knew immediately that their appearance had caused it. Even as he looked at the other two beneath the Cloak, the door of the Three Broomsticks burst open and a dozen cloaked and hooded Death Eaters dashed into the street, their wands aloft.
- Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows, Chapter 28 (The Missing Mirror)

This is a change since the sixth book: going and coming back from the cave, Harry and Dumbledore had been able to apparate directly into Hogsmeade.

Closing his eyes, gripping Dumbledore's as tightly as he could, he stepped forward into that feeling of horrible compression. He knew it had worked before he opened his eyes: The smell of salt, the sea breeze had gone. He and Dumbledore were shivering and dripping in the middle of the dark High Street in Hogsmeade.
- Harry Potter and The Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 27 (The Lightning Struck Tower)

So some of this heightened security may have been added not by the Ministry but later by Death Eaters, and seeing that the Death-Eaters had gone to lengths to put up a Caterwauling Charm and post Death Eaters around Hogsmeade, it's possible that they moved the concentration of security to also envelop Hogsmeade. This tunnel is also somewhat similar to the secret passage into Honeydukes through the one eyed with statue, in the aspect that it goes to Hogsmeade through Hogwarts' protective enchantments. As to how it works, getting down to the first floor from the fourth floor, well it's magic and doesn't have many rules.

After all, depending on the needs (or bladder) of the passer-by, it can be just about anything. Well, within reason: according to Gamp’s Law of Elemental Transfiguration, it can’t produce food, as Ron pointed out. (Yes, really, Ron pointed this out once.)
- The many states of the Room of Requirement - Pottermore

We cant be exactly sure which charms were placed on it so it could exist like it does (in somewhat of a suspended reality) aka in multiple places at once but it is possible that the tunnel will stay in place as an extension of the room and the room itself will move when people need to exit and then when more people are coming through the tunnel it will move down any amount of floors to get them in. As to the question about the efficiency, Neville probably didn't know about the kitchens so he couldn't ask the Room for that.

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    I think this is incorrect. There's no indication that it was part of Hogwarts' protections that the trio set off that night. Just a charm the Death Eaters cast. – TenthJustice Oct 4 '18 at 14:00
  • @TenthJustice wouldn't the DeathEaters need direct access to Hogwarts? – Niffler Oct 4 '18 at 14:05
  • Why would that prevent them from casting separate security magic at Hogsmede? They already had the power of the Ministry at that time. – user13267 Oct 4 '18 at 22:27
  • The trio just set off the Caterwauling Charm which let the death eaters know that they were there, they were still able to aparate into hogsmeade – FredWeaslyfan Oct 5 '18 at 0:07
  • @FredWeaslyfan The death eaters werent as accomplished spell casters as Dumbledore. – Niffler Oct 6 '18 at 14:33
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1,2. There is no evidence that the room itself changed it's location. As it changes it's size and shape, the room probably exists in a somewhat separate dimension, similar to the Platform 9 3\4 as was already indicated or Moody's trunk with 7 compartments. Which means the room can keep it's location while open the exit to different spots every time. Thus, the tunnel does not move either.

3. We can't really tell, as we don't know all the enchantments that were cast to protect the castle and how exactly the protection works. Remember that during events in The Prisoner of Azkaban protection of the school was higher than usual as well, but the tunnel under the Whomping Willow was working fine.

We know, for example, that you cannot pass over the castle walls:

“I could climb a wall,” he suggested. “No, you couldn’t,” said Tonks flatly. “Anti-intruder jinxes on all of them. Security’s been tightened a hundredfold this summer.”

But we know nothing about going underground.

4. There is a fair question about where the tunnel situated - is it outside the room? If we agree on the fact the the room itself is more of a separate dimension space, probably without any definite location in the castle at all, we can assume that the tunnel is just the part of the same dimension. Hence, we don't actually have the physical tunnel outside Hogwarts, it's more like a portal from one spot to another in a shape of the tunnel. It is just a guess, of course, as I don't think we have any canon explanation.

“It’s quite straightforward, really,’ said Neville modestly. ‘I’d been in here about a day and a half, and getting really hungry, and wishing I could get something to eat, and that’s when the passage to the Hog’s Head opened up. I went through it and met Aberforth"...

So basically it may be the same way the room opened exits to different floors in the castle, this time it just opened such exit in the Hog's Head.

5. I think - and again it's just my guess, as we don't have the canon source for it - the room reads inside one's mind. So if you ask for place to study DADA, you don't need to specify that you want cushions and textbooks there, it just provided you with the best option you could ask for. Hence, when Neville asked for food the room provided with the best option in his situation. Presumably Aberforth was safer option for Neville than kitchens possibly supervised by Carrows.

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